Iron Duke Miniatures

Iron Duke Miniatures

'Hard pounding, gentlemen!'


Battle of Chinhat 
30 June 1857

'Leave me, sir, and rejoin your company'. 

The badly wounded Lt-Col. William Case, commanding HM 32nd Regt, 
to Capt. Alfred Bassano, one of his company commanders.

Scenario. Sir Henry Lawrence sallies out of Lucknow to confront an approaching force of Mutineers, but is overmatched by a much more powerful force and forced to retreat in disorder. The battle marks the beginning of the Siege of Lucknow. 

                          British & Company Forces

Comd: Brig-Gen. Sir Henry Lawrence KCB.

2IC: Col. John Inglis, HM 32nd Regt.

OC Arty: Capt. Alfred Simons.


  • Volunteer Horse. (European). Capt. C. W. Radcliffe, 7th BLC. (36).
  • Loyal residues of 1st, 2nd and 3rd Oude Irregular Cavalry (primarily Sikh sowars). Lt. G. Hardinge. (120).


  • HM 32nd Regt. Lt-Col. Wm. Case. (300).
  • 13th BNI. Maj. C. F. Bruere. (150).
  • 48th BNI. Lt-Col. H. Palmer. (60).
  • 71st BNI. Lt. J. M. Birch. (20).

Police Detachment. [Disloyal].

  • About 300 men. Believed to be civil police as they seem not to have been universally provided with muskets. In any event, they changed sides at the outset of the battle and proceeded to engage the British from a flank.  

Artillery. [Oude native gunners disloyal: cut traces and overturned some guns].

  • 4 x guns No. 4 Coy/1st Bn., with No. 9 Field Bty, Bengal   Artillery. 2Lt. F. J. Cunliffe. Horse drawn light field battery. European crews. 
  • 4 x guns Alexander's Bty, No. 2 Light Field Bty., Oude Irregular Artillery. 2Lt. D. MacFarlan.  Indian crews. 
  • 2 x guns Ashe's No. 3 Light Field Bty., Oude Irregular Artillery. 2Lt. J. H. Bryce. Indian crews.
  • 1 x 8 in. howitzer (nicknamed 'the Turk'). 2Lt. J. Bonham. Elephant draught. European crew.

                                             Rebel Forces

Comd: Burkat Ahmed (a risaldar of the 15th Bengal Irregular Cavalry). The contingents of the Talookdars kept to themselves under the leadership of one Khan Ali Khan. 

Cavalry. (800).
  • 15th Bengal Irregular Cavalry.
  • Bulk of 1st, 2nd & 3rd Oude Irregular Cavalry. 

Trained Infantry. (5,500).
  • 22nd Bengal Native Infantry.
  • 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 8th and 9th Oude Irregular Infantry.
  • 1st and 2nd Regiments Military Police. 
Average strengths per unit of about 600.

Levied Infantry. (Strength uncertain).
  • Contingents of three Oude talookdars from Ramnugger Dhumeyree and Mahonah. 

Artillery. (16 guns).
  • No. 5 Coy/7th Bn., with No. 13 Field Bty, Bengal Artillery. Horse drawn light field battery, 9-pdr equipped.
  • No. 1 Light Field Bty, Oude Irregular Artillery. Horse drawn light field battery, 9-pdr equipped. 
  • 4 x light guns. Type unknown. Possibly 6-pdrs. 

The Siege of Cawnpore

Sir Hugh Wheeler's Entrenchment at Cawnpore

The Siege of Lucknow

The British Defensive Perimeter at Lucknow


  Composition of the Allahabad Moveable Column 

The task of relieving Maj-Gen. Sir Hugh Wheeler at Cawnpore and Brig-Gen. Sir Henry Lawrence at Lucknow is assigned to Brig-Gen. Henry Havelock, who is to command the 'Moveable Column' being assembled at Allahabad. Col. James Neill, 1st Madras Fusiliers, the first senior officer to reach Allahabad, restores order locally and promptly despatches an advanced force up-country under the command of Maj. George Renaud. It consists of 200 officers and men of HM 84th (York & Lancaster) Regiment, 300 1st Madras Fusiliers, 300 Sikhs of the Ferozepore Regiment, 65 Indian Irregular Cavalry and 2 x bullock drawn 9-pdrs manned by 'invailds' (old soldiers) of the Bengal Artillery. Renaud soon establishes that General Wheeler has recently (26 June) capitulated on terms, (namely the grant of safe conduct to Allahabad), but that the survivors of the siege have since been massacred in an act of treachery perpetrated the following day. The leader of the rebels at Cawnpore is a local nawab from Bithur known as the Nana Sahib. The 210 women and children who survive the initial massacre are held captive at a building called the Bibighar, (though a viciously cruel fate still lies ahead of them). Havelock departs Allahabad with the main body and, by forced marching, catches up with Renaud just in time to prevent his being attacked by a greatly superior rebel force: the Battle of Fatehpur ensues within a matter of hours. 

   Force Commander: Brig-Gen. Henry Havelock.

      DQMG (COS): Lt-Col. Fraser Tytler. DAAG: Capt. Stuart Beatson. Logistics: Capt. McBean. ADC. Lt. Henry Havelock.


  • Allahabad Volunteer Cavalry. Capt. Lousada. Barrow, 5th Madras Light Cavalry. (20).
  • Detachments 3rd Oude Irregular Cavalry & 13th Bengal Irregular Cavalry. Lt. C. H. Palliser. Disarmed 14 Jul 57. (95).


  • HM 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment.  Maj. Thomas Stirling. (435).
  • HM 84th (York & Lancaster) Regiment. 2 x centre coys. Initially Lt. H. A. W. Ayton, then Capt. Eugene Currie (KIA 16 Jul). (190).
  • HM 78th Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs). Col. Walter Hamilton. (Wing: grenadier, light, No. 3 and No. 6 Coys. (284).
  • 1st Madras Fusiliers ('Neill's Bluecaps'). Maj. George Renaud, (WIA mortally 15 Jul), then Maj. John Stephenson. (376).
  • Ferozepore Regiment (Brasyer's Sikhs). Capt. Jeremiah Brasyer. (448).


  • Maude's Battery, No. 3 Coy/8th Bn., Royal Artillery. Capt. Francis Maude. (3 & 76 Europeans, 18 x golandauz, N/K qty Indian civilian drivers). Bullock-drawn. Initially 2 x 6-pdrs, 2 x 9-pdrs, 2 x 12-pdr howitzers. After the first action of the campaign Maude used captured guns to re-equip his battery with 5 x 9-pdrs and 1 x 24-pdr howitzer. Included in the 76 European personnel were 31 x attached infantrymen, mostly from HM 64th.  

  • 1 x ad hoc division, Bengal Artillery. Lt. T. N. Harward. 22 European 'Invalids' Bengal Artillery, N/K qty Indian civilian drivers. 2 x bullock drawn 9-pdrs. Originally with Renaud, Harward's division was subsequently fought as an adjunct to Maude's Battery.                            

On the Ganges.

  • The steamer Brahamaputra. Ship's Captain: Lt (?) Dickson, HEIC Bombay Marine (i.e. the Company's naval service). OC Embarked Troops: Captain John Spurgin, 1st Madras Fusiliers, with 100 men from his own regiment and 12 Bengal Artillery invalids manning 2 x 6-pdrs.  

Brigadier General Henry Havelock

Maps of Havelock's Operations


 Chronology of Operations and Actions
of the 
Allahabad Moveable Column

   Havelock's general actions are highlighted in green. 
     Events on the Lines of Communication are in square brackets.

26 June. Maj-Gen. Sir Hugh Wheeler opens negotiations with the Nana Sahib at Cawnpore.
30 June. Sir Henry Lawrence is defeated at the Battle of Chinhat. The Siege of Lucknow begins. 
30 June. Col. James Neill despatches an advanced guard from Allahabad under Maj. George Renaud (190 x HM 84th, 200 x 1st Madras Fusiliers, 300 x Brasyer's Sikhs, 65 Irregular Horse, 22 x Bengal Artillery with 2 x bullock drawn 9-pdrs). Brig-Gen Havelock arrives at Allahabad and takes command.
[27 June. The surviving members of General Wheeler's garrison are treacherously attacked at the river and massacred].
1 July. The steamer Brahmaputra sets out for Cawnpore with Capt. John Spurgin, 100 x Madras Fusiliers, 12 x Bengal Artillery invalids and 2 x 6-pdrs. 
3 July. News from Renaud of the certain fall of Cawnpore arrives with Havelock at Allahabad.
7 July. Havelock departs Allahabad with the main body of the moveable column.
12 July. Havelock joins Renaud after a forced march. Unified force is just under 2,000 men and 8 guns. Battle of Fatehpur.
14 July. Palliser's Irregular Cavalry are disarmed. Their horses and weapons are used to mount and equip 40 volunteers from the infantry who then join Capt. Barrow's ad hoc troop.
15 July. Battle of Aong & the action at Pandu River. Maj. Renaud, commanding 1st Madras Fusiliers, is mortally wounded.The Bibighar atrocity is perpetrated at Cawnpore: more than 200 women and children are murdered.  
16 July. Battle of Cawnpore (also sometimes referred to as the Battle of Maharajpur or the Battle of Aherwa). Capt. Eugene Currie, commanding HM 84th, is KIA. 
17 July. Havelock's entry into Cawnpore.
17 July. Maj. John Stephenson's raid on the Nana's palace at Bithoor (unopposed). 
20 July. A reinforcement of 227 officers & men HM 84th Regiment arrives at Cawnpore with the newly promoted Brigadier Neill. Neill is appointed by Havelock to take command of the 300-strong garrison he will leave in situ. 
21 July. Havelock departs Cawnpore, crosses the Ganges and marches for Lucknow.
[25 July. Lines of Communication: Mutiny at Dinapore].
[27 July-2 August. Lines of Communication: Siege of Arrah. Mr. H. Wake, the resident magistrate, 14 other civilians and 50 of Rattray's Sikhs fort up at Mr. Boyle's house and are besieged. 
[29 July. Lines of Communication: The Dunbar Disaster. Capt. Charles Dunbar's attempt to relieve Arrah with a 450-strong force from Dinapore ends in a rout].
29 July. Battle of Unnao & 1st Battle of Bashiratganj. 
31 July. Havelock retires on Mangalwar.
[2 August. Lines of Communication: Battle of Bibigunge. Maj. Vincent Eyre, Bengal Artillery, defeats the besieging force at Arrah with only 220 men and relieves Mr. Wake.
4 August. Havelock reinforced at Mangalwar by half of Olpherts' Bty under Lt. W. Smithett and the Light Coy of HM 84th which is immediately re-armed with the Enfields of the casualties to date. 2 x 24-pdrs without crews are also brought up. Capt. Maude mans them with Lt. Crump and some of the men of his battery.  
5 August. 2nd Battle of Bashiratganj.
6 August. Havelock returns to Mangalwar. Maj. George Cooper, Bengal Artillery, joins and assumes overall command of the artillery.
[11 August. Lines of Communication: Maj. Eyre attacks and defeats Kunwar Singh at Jagdishpur]. 
12 August. Battle of Boorhya-ka-Chowki.
13 August. With his remaining combat power no longer viable for the task in hand, Havelock retires across the Ganges to Cawnpore.
15 August. Neill attacks the left wing of the Nana's forces near Cawnpore, as a prelude to Havelock's attack on the enemy main body the following day.
16 August. Battle of Bithoor.
17 August. Havelock retires on Cawnpore to await reinforcement and refit his force, a process which includes the arrival of large numbers of Enfields. In the ensuing period to mid-September, 4 more coys of HM 78th Hldrs and the balance of Olpherts' Battery come up. Olpherts has harness made so that he can equip his battery as a horse-drawn one and then trains his men for role. 
1 September. Arrival of details at Cawnpore: 80 x HM 78th Hldrs, 50 x HM 84th, 56 x 1st Madras Fusiliers. Maj-Gen. Sir James Outram arrives at Allahabad.
11 September. Lines of communication: Maj. Eyre's Action at Koondum Puttee. Eyre's Force 100 x HM 5th Fusiliers, 60 x HM 64th, 40 x 12th Bengal Irregular Cavalry, 2 x guns]. 
15 September. Maj-Gen. Sir James Outram arrives at Cawnpore, bringing up 5 x coys HM 5th Fusiliers, 7 x coys HM 90th LI, 1 x coy HM 78th, 60 x volunteer cavalry, 60 x 12th Bengal Irregular Cavalry and 2 x 8-inch howitzers. Outram generously defers to Havelock until Lucknow is relieved, stating that in the interim he will operate only in his civil capacity and as a military volunteer.  
19 September. Havelock re-crosses the Ganges, bound for Lucknow.
21 September. Action at Mangalwar.
23 September. Action at the Alambagh.
25 SeptemberFirst Relief of Lucknow after a day's bitter street fighting.

Battle of Cawnpore
16 July 1857 
(also known as the Battle of Aherwa)


Official Despatch for the Battle of Cawnpore.

Brig-Gen. H. Havelock C.B., to the Deputy Adjutant-General of the Army, dated Camp, Cawnpore, 20 July 1857. 


1. I have the pleasure to announce that the triumph of the Mahratta pretender, Nana Sahib, adopted nephew of the late ex-Peishwa, Bajee Rao, has been of short duration. The treacherous proceedings by which he compassed the destruction of the force under the gallant Sir Hugh Wheeler, have already been reported to the Commander-in-Chief. I have now to announce the complete discomfiture of his force, under his personal command, and the capture of his cannon, followed by the reoccupation of this station, which, since the 6th of June, he has been devastating and desecrating by every form of cruelty and oppression.

2. He filled up the measure of his iniquities on the 15th; for, on hearing that the bridge at the Pandoo Nuddee was forced, he ordered the immediate massacre of the wives and children of our British soldiers still in his possession in this cantonment which was carried out by his followers with every circumstance of barbarous malignity.

3. My information was in every respect good, and I ascertained that he had taken up a position at the village of Aherwa, where the Grand Trunk Road unites with that which leads direct to the military cantonment at Cawnpore.

4. His entrenchments cut and rendered impassable both roads; and his guns, seven in number (two light and five siege calibre), were disposed along his position, which consists of a series of villages. Behind these his infantry, consisting of mutinous troops and his own armed followers, was disposed for defence. It was evident that an attack in front would expose the British to a murderous fire from his heavy guns sheltered in his entrenchment. I resolved, therefore, to manoeuvre to turn his left. My camp and baggage were accordingly kept back, under proper escort at the village of Maharajpore, and I halted my troops there two or three hours in mango- groves to cook and gain shelter from a burning sun.

5. My column then moved off, right in front; the Fusiliers led, followed by two guns; then came the Highlanders, in rear of whom was the central battery of six guns, under Captain Maude. The 64th and 84th had two guns more in their rear, and the Regiment of Ferozepore closed the column. My troops, defiling at a steady pace, soon changed direction, and began to circle round the enemy's left. They were shrouded for some time by clumps of mango; but as soon as the enemy comprehended the object of their march, an evident sensation was created in his lines. He pushed forward on his left a large body of horse, and opened a fire of shot and shell from the whole of his guns. But he was evidently disconcerted by our advance on his flank, and anxious for his communication with Cawnpore. My troops continued their progress until his left was wholly opened to our attack, and then formed line and advanced in direct echelon of regiments and batteries from the right. A wing of the Fusiliers again covered the advance ex tended as riflemen.

7. The opportunity had arrived for which I have long anxiously waited, of developing the prowess of the 78th Highlanders. Three guns of the enemy were strongly posted behind a lofty hamlet well entrenched. I directed this regiment to advance, and never have I witnessed conduct more admirable. They were led by Colonel Hamilton, and followed him with surpassing steadiness and gallantry under a heavy fire. As they approached the village they cheered, and charged with the bayonet, the pipes sounding the pibroch: need I add that the enemy fled, the village was taken, and the guns captured.

8. On the left, Major Stirling, with the 64th, was equally successful against another village, and took three guns.

9. The enemy's infantry appeared to be everywhere in full retreat; and I had ordered the fire to cease, when a reserve 24-pounder was opened on the Cawnpore road, which caused considerable loss to my force; and, under cover of its fire, two large bodies of cavalry at the same time riding insolently over the plain, the infantry once more rallied. The beating of their large drums, and numerous mounted officers in front, announced the definite struggle of the ' Nana' for his usurped dominion.

10. I had previously ordered my volunteer cavalry to adventure a charge on a more advanced part of the enemy's horse; and I have the satisfaction to report that they conducted themselves most creditably. One of their number, Mr. Carr, was killed in the charge.

11. But the final crisis approached. My artillery cattle, wearied by the length of the march, could not bring up guns to my assistance; and the 1st Madras Fusiliers, 64th, 84th, and 78th detachments, formed in line, were exposed to a heavy fire from the 24-pounder on the road. I was resolved this state of things should not last; so, calling upon my men, who were lying down in line, to leap on their feet, I directed another steady advance. It was irresistible. The enemy sent round shot into our ranks until we were within 300 yards, and then poured in grape with such precision and determination as I have seldom witnessed. But the 64th, led by Major Stirling and my aide-de-camp (who had placed himself in their front), wore not to be denied. Their rear showed the ground strewed with wounded; but on they steadily and silently came; then with a cheer charged, and captured the unwieldy trophy of their valour.

12. The enemy lost ail heart, and after a hurried fire of musketry gave way in total rout. Four of my guns came up and completed their discomfiture by a heavy cannonade, and as it grew dark the roofless barracks of our artillery were dimly descried in advance, and it was evident that Cawnpore was once more in our possession.

13. The points of this victory I shall have afterwards to describe. The troops had been thirteen hours in their bivouac, when a tremendous explosion shook the earth. 'Nana Sahib,' in full retreat to Bithoor, had blown up the Cawnpore magazine. The first movements of the Mahratta indicated a determination to defend himself desperately. Reports from the front assured us that he had assembled 5,000 men, and placed forty-five guns in position for the defence of his stronghold. But his followers have since despaired, and I have taken possession of Bithoor without a shot.

14. I was joined by the steamer Burrampooter [sic] this morning, which is now in easy communication with me.

15. I must reiterate my obligations to the officers commanding my detachments and batteries; to Major Stephenson, Madras Fusiliers; Colonel Hamilton, the leader of my Highlanders, who had his horse shot; Major Stirling, 64th, who is slightly wounded; Captain Currie, 84th, severely, I fear dangerously, wounded (since dead); Captain Maude, artillery; Captain Brasyer, commanding the Regiment of Ferozepore; and Captain Barrow, commanding my small body of horse. Lieutenant-Colonel Tytler's zeal and gallantry have been beyond all praise.

It was my desire to have offered my thanks in like terms to Captain Beatson, Deputy Assistant-adjutant-general; but I can now only record my opinion over his grave. He was attacked by cholera on the morning of this fight; and though he did his duty throughout it, and bivouacked with the troops, he sunk in three days under the violence of his disorder. Lieutenant Moorsom, Her Majesty's Light Infantry, assisted in carrying my orders, and dis played great courage and much intelligence.

I have already mentioned the conduct of my aide-de-camp in front of the 64th throughout the fight; he was seen wherever danger was most pressing, and I beg specially to commend him to the protection and favour of His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief.

I enclose returns of killed, wounded, and missing, and ordnance captured.

I have, &c.

H. Havelock,


Commanding Allahabad Movable Column.

Special Order of the Day, by Brig-Gen, H. Havelock CB, dated Cawnpore, 20 Jul 1857.

The Brigadier-General takes blame to himself for not having yet noticed in orders the gallant behaviour of the troops in the two affairs of the 15th inst., and the victory of the 16th. But he has in the meantime sustained a heavy loss in the sudden death of his deputy assistant-adjutant-general, and his time has been preoccupied in preparations for the troops' further cause of congratulation.

Cawnpore, won by Lord Lake in 1803, has been a happy and peaceful place ever since; until the wretched ambition of a man, whose uncle's life was, by a too indulgent government, spared in 1817, filled it in 1857 with rapine and bloodshed. When, soldiers, your valour won the bridge at the Pandoo Nuddee, you were signing the death-warrant of the helpless women and children of your comrades of the 32nd; they were murdered in cold blood by the miscreant Nana Sahib, whose troops fled in dismay at the victorious shout of your line on the evening of the memorable 16th.

Soldiers! Your general is satisfied, and more than satisfied with you. He has never seen steadier or more elevated troops. But your labours are only beginning. Between the 7th instant and the 16th you have, under the Indian sun of July, marched 126 miles, and fought four actions. But your comrades at Lucknow are in peril. Agra is besieged. Delhi is still the focus of mutiny and rebellion. You must make great sacrifices if you would obtain great results. Three cities have to be saved – two strong places to be disblockaded [sic]. Your general is confident that he can effect all these things, and restore this part of India to tranquillity, if you only second him with your efforts, and if your discipline is equal to your valour.

Highlanders! It was my earnest desire to afford you the opportunities of showing you how your predecessors conquered at Maida. You have not degenerated. Assaye was not won by a more silent, compact, and resolute charge than was the village near Jansemow on the 16th instant.

64th! You have put to silence the gibes of your enemies throughout India; you reserved your fire until you saw the colour of your enemies' moustaches: this gave us the victory

2nd Battle of Bashiratganj
5 August 1857


Official Despatch for the 2nd Battle of Bashiratganj. 

Brig-Gen. H. Havelock C.B., to the Deputy Adjutant-General of the Army, Calcutta, dated camp, Mangalwar, 6 Aug 1857. 

I beg you will acquaint His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief that having received information that the enemy had re-occupied Busheratgunge in force, I advanced against that place yesterday, turned the left of the position, with the Highlanders, Sikhs and Captain Maude’s Battery, under Colonel Hamilton: attacking in front with the rest of my force, I drove the enemy out of the town and across the narrow causeway and bridge with great slaughter., and returned to this position at night; not a soldier or armed villager on the enemy’s side dared to follow me.

The insurgents had eight or ten guns beyond the causeway; two on this side of it, two of those beyond were 24-pounders. The whole were kept at such a distance, and withdrawn so rapidly, that we never got a fair sight of them. None therefore fell into our hands, but two on the walls, which has been captured on the 29th ultimo, and dismantled by the Commandant of Artillery, so imperfectly, however, that the enemy again fired out of them.

I estimate the loss of the enemy at 300 killed and wounded; mine was twenty-five. The enemy will not, I fear, again venture to fight with a narrow causeway and swamp in his rear.

I enclose a return of casualties; also a sketch of the ground.

I have, &c. 



Commanding Allahabad Moveable Column.

Battle of Bithoor
16 August 1857

Note: the residency shown on the map is that of the Nana Sahib.

Official Despatch for the Battle of Bithur

Brig-Gen. H. Havelock C.B., to the Deputy-Adjutant-General of the Army, Calcutta, dated Bivouac, Bithoor, 17 Aug 1857.


I have to request the favour of your informing the Commander-in-Chief that I marched to this place yesterday.

The mutineers of the 31st and 42nd from Saugor, the 17th from Fyzabad, and sepoys of other regiments, with troops of the 2nd Light Cavalry and 3rd Irregulars, united to a portion of Nana Sahib’s troops, were, with two guns, in one of the strongest positions I have ever seen: they numbered 4,000 men. The plain, densely covered with thicket, and flanked by villages, has two streams flowing through it, not fordable by troops of any arm, and only to be crossed by two narrow bridges, the furthest of which was protected by an entrenchment armed with artillery: the road takes a turn after passing the second bridge, which protects defenders from direct fire; and behind are the narrow streets and brick houses of Bithoor. I must do the mutineers the justice to pronounce that they fought obstinately, otherwise they could not for a whole hour have held their own, even with such advantages of ground, against my powerful artillery fire; the streams prevented my turning them, and my troops were received, in assaulting the position, by a heavy rifle and musketry fire from the rifle and battalion companies engaged; but, after a severe struggle, the enemy were driven back; their guns captured, and infantry chased off the field in full retreat towards Seorajpore. Had I possessed cavalry, not a rebel nor a mutineer could have reached that place alive; as it is, they shall not long remain there unmolested.

The loss of the enemy is estimated at 250 killed and wounded. Mine is 49, and my numbers are further reduced by sunstroke and cholera.

I enclose a sketch of the position, returns of killed and wounded and captured ordnance.

I have, &c.,

H. Havelock,


Commanding Allahabad Moveable Column.

Special Order of the Day by Brig-Gen, H. Havelock CB, dated Camp, Cawnpore, 17 Aug 1857.

The Brigadier-General commanding, congratulates the troops on the result of their exertions in the combat of yesterday. The enemy were driven, with the loss of 250 killed and wounded, from one of the strongest positions in India, which they resolutely defended. They were the flower of the mutinous soldiery, flushed with the successful defection at Sangor and Fyzabad; yet they stood only one short hour against a handful of soldiers of the state, whose ranks had been thinned by sickness and the sword. May the hopes of treachery and rebellion be ever thus blasted; and if conquest can now be achieved under the most trying circumstances, what will be the triumph and retribution of the time when the armies from China, from the Cape, and from England, shall sweep through the land?

Soldiers, in that moment, your labours, your privations, your sufferings, and your valour, will not be forgotten by a grateful country. You will be acknowledged to have been the stay and prop of British India in the time of her severest trial.


Rebel Forces engaged against Havelock's Column

Engagement & Date
Rebel Forces
Units said to have been reviewed by the Nana Sahib at Cawnpore (28 Jun)
2nd Bengal Light Cavalry (BLC); 1st, 53rd and 56th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI), all of Cawnpore. 1st and 2nd Oudh Irregular Cavalry (OIC) and 2 x regiments Oudh Irregular Infantry (OII), all of Lucknow. 17th BNI and 13th Bengal Irregular Cavalry (BIC) from Azimghur. 12th BNI (wing), 14th Bengal Irregular Cavalry (1 x sqn) and No. 18 Light Field Battery from Nowong. 7th Bengal Light Cavalry (1 x sqn). Elements of 10th BNI from Futteghar. Elements of 6th BNI from Allahabad. Elms 48th BNI (2 x coys). Three 'Nowabie regiments' from Cawnpore (the Nana Sahib's personal retinue; probably mostly matchlockmen). Two half-regiments of newly raised levies from Cawnpore. Also a 'great mob of zemindars, &c, of neighboring districts, who came well-armed to assist the Nana.'
 Fatehpur (12 Jul)
Comd: Jawala Parshad (the Nana's 'C-in-C') & Tika Singh (a risaldar of 2nd BLC). Total: 3,600 with 12 x guns. Estimated strengths by arm: 500 sowars, 1,400 sepoys, 1,500 local levies and badmashes, 100 artillerymen. Cavalry units present: 13th Bengal Irregular Cavalry, 2nd BLC complete with elements of 1st BLC and 2 x tps 7th BLC. Infantry units present: 1st, 53rd and 56th BNI (theoretically up to 3,000 sepoys, but there were evidently significantly fewer men than that present). Arty known to be present: No 1. Field Bty, Oude Irregular Artillery (horse-drawn, 9-pdr equipped). [Total ordnance: 2 x 6-pdrs, 5 x 9-pdrs, 1 x 24-pdr howitzer, 1 x 12-pdr, 1 x 24-pdr heavy gun, 1 x 10-in mortar, 1 x 5.5 in. brass mortar]. The cavalry were dressed in 'French Grey' regimentals, the infantry in white native dress.
 Aong (15 Jul)
Same force as previous day, (minus all 12 of its guns). 2 x 6-pdr newly brought up (and duly lost).
 Pandu River (15 Jul)
Elements of same force with 2 x 24-pdrs.The Nana sahib's brother, Bala Rao, a senior command figure, was present on 15 Jul and was WIA in one or other of the actions fought that day (shot in the shoulder). 
  Cawnpore (16 Jul)
Comd. Nana Sahib. Same force as Futtehpore/Aong plus numerous reinforcements from Cawnpore. Probably the Nana's total available force as described at the head of this table. The Nana's personal retinue was present on the third position attacked by the British. Total: 5-6,000 including several hundred cavalry with 7 x guns. [Arty: 2 x 6 or 9-pdrs, 5 x 24-pdrs].  
 Unnao (29 Jul)
6,000 with 15 guns, including No. 5 Coy/7th Bn., with No. 13 Light Field Battery, Bengal Artillery. 
 1st Bashiratganj (29 Jul)
Same force as at Unao minus all 15 guns and 500 casualties. 4 new guns present (and also captured in the course of the day).
 2nd Bashiratganj (5 Aug)
By the estimate of one British officer, the enemy force consisted of 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry, but this is certain to be an overestimate. There were, however, 10-12 guns [including 2 x 24-pdrs], suggesting a powerful force. Havelock gives no numerical estimate in his official despatch.
Boorhya-ka-Chowki (12 Aug)
3,500 infantry, 500 cavalry with 6 field guns [at least four 9-pdrs].  
 Bithoor (16 Aug)
Total Strength: estimated by Havelock at 4,000 with 2 x guns. The cavalry component, consisting as it did of the 3rd Bengal Irregular Cavalry and some but not all of the troops of 2nd BLC probably accounted for about 500 of the 4,000. The infantry units present were the 17th, 28th, 31st, 34th & 42nd BNI, with elements of 41st BNI. The 42nd BNI are sourced as wearing their red coatees on this occasion. Also present were the Nana Sahib's irregular troops and retainers, plus zemindar contingents and badmash elements. Some British officers thought the enemy was 10,000 strong: the number of irregulars and badmashes is impossible to know for sure.   
 [Koondhum Puttee (11 Sep)]
 Mangalwar (21 Sep)
'In great stength' with 5 x guns.
 Alambagh (23 Sep)
Total: estimated at 10,000 Infantry and 1,500 cavalry. The 53rd and 56th BNI were certainly present. Most of the troops scattered at Bithur would also have been present, as would the turned Lucknow regiments, (13th, 48th and 71st BNI), and the Oude Irregular Force Regiments (1st, 2nd & 3rd Oude Irregular Cavalry; 
2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 8th and 9th Oude Irregular Infantry, 1st and 2nd Regiments Oude Military Police). It should be borne in mind that some proportion of these regiments would have continued to press the siege concurrently.
 1st Relief of Lucknow 
 (25 Sep)
No reliable estimate available but numerically very powerful, including all the regiments named above. Perhaps 25,000 fighting men in all, spread across the city and still prosecuting the siege. 

   Composition of the Oude Field Force 
    on crossing the Ganges 
for the 
        First Relief of Lucknow (25 Sep 1857).

Force Commander: Brig-Gen Henry Havelock CB

Present in his civil capacity: Maj-Gen. Sir James Outram KCB, Chief Commissioner of Oude, GOC Cawnpore & Dinapore Divisions.

COS (to Outram): Col. Robert Napier, Bengal Engineers.

DQMG (COS to Havelock): Lt-Col. Fraser Tytler. DAAG: Lt. Henry Havelock. Chief Engineer: Capt. Wm Crommelin. 

1st Infantry Brigade.  Brig. James Neill, 1st Madras Fusiliers.     

HM 5th Regiment (Northumberland Fusiliers). Maj. James Simmons. Nos 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, & 10 Coys. (420).

HM 84th (York & Lancaster) Regiment. (With 2 x coys HM 64th under command). Capt. Frederic Willis.

1st Madras Fusiliers ('Neill's Bluecaps'). Maj. John Stephenson.

[Maude's Battery in support during the fight into Lucknow: see below].

2nd Infantry Brigade.  Brig. Walter Hamilton, 78th Hldrs.

HM 78th Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs). Lt-Col. Henry Stisted. (26 & 523).

HM 90th (Perthshire Volunteers) (Light Infantry). 7 x coys. Col. Robert Campbell CB. (28 & 646).

Ferozepore Regiment (Brasyer's Sikhs). Capt. Jeremiah Brasyer. (341).

[Olpherts' Battery in support during the fight into Lucknow: see below].

3rd Artillery Brigade. Brig. (Maj.) George Cooper. 18 guns, 282 men).
Maude's Battery, No. 3 Coy/8th Bn., RA. Capt. Francis Maude. Bullock-drawn field battery. 5 x 9-pdrs, 1 x 24-pdr howitzer.      

Olpherts' Battery, No. 2 Coy/3rd Bn., with No. 12 Light Field Battery, Bengal Artillery. Capt Wm. Olpherts. Horse-drawn. 

     5 x 9-pdrs, 1 x 24-pdr howitzer.

Eyre's Battery, No. 3 Heavy Field Battery, (No. 1 Coy/5th Bn.), Bengal Artillery. Maj. Vincent Eyre. Bullock-drawn. 4 x 24-pdrs, 

     2 x 8-inch howitzers.

Cavalry. Capt. Lousada Barrow, 5th Madras Light Cavalry.

Allahabad Volunteer Cavalry. (109).

12th Bengal Irregular Cavalry. A/Capt. Wm. Johnson, 6th BNI. Mostly Sikhs. (59).

Totals by Arm: 2,388 European Infantry, 341 Sikh Infantry, 109 European Volunteer Cavalry, 59 Sikh Irregular Horse, 282 gunners, 18 x guns. 

Alambagh: on 25 Sep Maj. Colin McIntyre, 78th Hldrs, was left to garrison the Alambagh with 280 British infantry, (a composite body made up of 70-man detachments from HM 5th, HM 78th, HM 84th and 1st Madras Fusiliers), 50 Ferozepore Regiment Sikhs, 2 x 9-pdrs and 2 x 8-in. howitzers. In his charge were 128 sick and wounded and a very large number of Indian camp followers. When Sir Colin Campbell came up in November, McIntryre and his troops were relieved in place by HM 75th and subsequently played a full part in the second relief of Lucknow as components of two composite battalions of detachments. 

Operations at Lucknow 
Sep 1857-Mar 1858

This map shows the routes to the residency taken on 25 Sep by Havelock and in mid-November by Campbell. 
The inset key above explains all. Below: same ground, in slightly larger scale.


General Sir Colin Campbell's Force
at the 
2nd Relief of Lucknow

A drummer boy of the 93rd must have been one of the first to pass that grim boundary between life and death, for when I got in I found him just inside the breach, lying on his back quite dead - a pretty, innocent-looking, fair-headed lad, not more than 14 years of age.

                                                                                                                  Lieutenant Fred Roberts, Bengal Artillery, on the storming of the Secunderbagh.

C-in-C India: General Sir Colin Campbell GCB.

COS: L/Maj-Gen. William Mansfield, HM 53rd Regt.. Military Secretary: Maj. Archibald Alison, HM 72nd Regt.. 

Divisional Commander: Maj-Gen. Hope Grant CB.

AAG: Capt. Henry Norman. DAQMG: Lt. G. Allgood. DACG: Capt. A. D. Dickens. Acting Chief Engineer: Lt. Lennox. 

OC Royal Artillery: Capt. Frederick Travers. OC Bengal Artillery: Maj. Frank Turner.

Cavalry Brigade. Brig. Archibald Little, HM 9th Lancers.

HM 9th Lancers. Maj. Henry Ouvry. 2 x sqns. (200, estimate).

2nd Bn. Military Train. Maj. James Robertson. 2 x sqns. (200).

1st Punjaub Cavalry. Lt. John Watson. 1 x sqn.

2nd Punjaub Cavalry. Lt. Dighton Probyn. 1 x sqn.

5th Punjaub Cavalry. Lt. George Younghusband, 13th BNI. 1 x sqn.

Hodson's Horse. Lt. Hugh Gough. (160).


Note: the aggregated strength of the three Punjab Cavalry regiments was about 300 men).

Naval Brigade. Capt. Wm. Peel RN. Bullock drawn guns: 6 x 24-pdrs, 2 x 8 in. howitzers. 2 x rocket carts. Includes RMLI detachment. (250).

3rd Infantry Brigade. Brig. Edward Greathed, HM 8th Regt.

HM 8th Regiment. Maj. John Hinde. (300, estimate).

Hamilton's 1st Battalion of Detachments. Lt-Col. Henry Hamilton. 

        Nos. 4 & 7 Coys HM 5th Regt., 70 others of HM 5th who had been left at the Alambagh by Outram, a coy sized drafts for HM               64th and a 70 man detachment of HM 78th Hldrs which had also been part of the Alambagh garrison.

2nd (Green's) Punjaub Infantry. Capt. George Green. (550, estimate).

4th Infantry Brigade. Brig. the Hon. Adrian Hope CB, HM 93rd Hldrs.

HM 93rd Highlanders. Lt-Col. Alexander Leith Hay. (1,000).

HM 53rd Regiment. Lt-Col. Charles Gordon, HM 93rd Hldrs. One wing only. (400, estimate).

4th (Wilde's) Punjaub Infantry. A/Capt. Wm. Paul, 7th BNI. (550, estimate).

Barnston's 2nd Battalion of Detachments. Maj. Roger Barnston, HM 90th LI. 

      3 x coys HM 90th LI and 70 man detachments of HM 84th and 1st Madras Fusiliers that had formerly been part of the Alambagh         garrison (600).

5th Infantry Brigade. Brig. David Russell, 84th Regt.

HM 23rd Regiment. Lt-Col. Samuel Wells. One wing comprising Nos 2, 4, 5 and 7 Coys only. (400, estimate). 

HM 82nd Regiment. Lt-Col. Edward Hale. 2 coys only. (10 & 200).

Artillery Brigade. Brig. Wm. Crawford RA.

Hardy's Battery, No. 4 Coy/5th Bn., RA. Capt. Whaley Hardy. Heavy Field Battery. 2 x 18-pdrs, 1 x 8 in. howitzer.

Longden's Battery, No. 5 Coy/13th Bn., RA. Capt. Charles Longden. Mortar Battery. 6 x 8 in. mortars, 10 x 5.5 in. mortars.

Middleton's Battery, No. 6 Coy/13th Bn., RA. Capt. Wm. Middleton. Horse drawn field battery. 4 x 9-pdrs, 2 x 24-pdr howitzers.  

Remmington's Troop, 1st Tp/1st Bde., Bengal Horse Artillery. Capt. Frederick Remmington. 4 x 6-pdrs, 1 x 12-pdr howitzer. 

Blunt's Troop, 2nd Tp/3rd Bde., Bengal Horse Artillery. Capt. Charles Blunt. 4 x 9-pdrs, 1 x 24-pdr howitzer. 

1 x division E Troop, Madras Horse Artillery. Lt. C. Bridge. 2 x 6-pdrs.

Bourchier's Battery, No. 3 Coy/1st Bn., with No. 17 Field Bty., Bengal Artillery. Capt. George Bourchier. Horse drawn light field battery.       4 x 9-pdrs, 2 x 24-pdr howitzer. 

Engineers. Lt. Scott, Madras Engineers.

1 x coy Royal Engineers. Lt. Wilbraham Lennox VC, RE. (80)

1 x coy Madras Sappers & Miners. (100, estimate).

Detachment Bengal Sappers & Miners.

2 x coys Punjaub Sappers & Miners. Newly raised. (200, estimate).

Left to Garrison the Alambagh. OC: Maj. Moir, Bengal Artillery.

HM 75th Regiment. Maj. Charles Gordon. (300).

Ferezopore Regiment. 1 x coy. (50).


1. Campbell's estimate of his strength on 12 Nov 1857 was 700 cavalry and 2,700 infantry, (with no figures offered for the artillery and engineers). He also reported that he was joined on 14 Nov by 600-700 reinforcements who caught up with his rearguard that morning. 

2. In the case of the units which had marched with Greathed's column from Delhi via Agra, the estimated unit strengths given above are for the most part derived from their reported start state on departure from Delhi, with some allowance for sickness and casualties incurred at the Battle of Agra.